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The Basques are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous area in southwestern France and northeastern Spain. At times they have had their own independent country.

Their language is thousands of years old and predates Indo-European entry into Europe.

They were expert fisherman and traveled as far as North America in search of cod, possibly before Christopher Columbus made his voyages.


  • Kurlansky, Mark. Cod
  • Kurlansky, Mark. The Basque History of the World
  • Kurlansky, Mark. Salt