Blackjack, or Twenty-one, is the most popular casino game. With the development of the personal computer, players, including mathematically skilled individuals who had used brute force methods to develop systems to win at the game, found that computer-developed systems provided a distinct advantage.
In the 1960's, blackjack became the most popular of casino games after computer-based systems were developed which gave an edge to the player. Various mathematicians and gamblers including Edward Thorp and Les Golden have refined these systems.
|Hi-Lo||Edward Thorp||Groundbreaking early system that inspired a movement|
|K-O||Olaf Vancura and Ken Fuchs||Knock-Out Blackjack|
In the Media
Never Split Tens!, a novel based on the life of pioneering blackjack card counting theorist Edward O. Thorp, by gambling writer Les Golden of Oak Park, Illinois, was published in 2017 by Springer. It includes numerous examples of card counting using Thorp’s systems in simulated casino play including changing bet sizes, group card counting, camouflage techniques, and entering play when the deck is favorable to the player.
- Golden, Les (2010). “Countering the Casino Countering of Counters: The Golden Diagram to the Rescue,” Bluff Europe, June, p. 84-85
- Golden, Les (2011). “Trust Me: An Undetectable Winning System For Blackjack! ,” Bluff Europe, March, p. 94-95
- Golden, Leslie M. (2011). “An Analysis of the Disadvantage to Players of Multiple Decks in the Game of 21.” The Mathematical Scientist, 32, 2, p. 57-69
- Golden, Les (2011). “Stepping Out With My Baby: The Stepwise Betting Strategy,” Bluff Europe, April, p. 92-93
- http://www.amazon.com/Knock-Out-Blackjack-Easiest-Card-Counting-Devised/dp/0929712315, found via Google search 1/14/14.