The Vietnam War was a war fought in Vietnam and neighbouring countries from the 1950s to the early 1970s. For most of this time, the United States was heavily involved.
The outcome was that the United States lost, the Republic of Vietnam (which was turning into a dictatorship at this point) was abolished, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed.
French Indochina was colonized in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
During World War II, French Indochina remained loyal to Vichy France, then was occupied by Japan. Following the Allied victory, France attempted to reestablish control, but failed following a humiliating defeat at Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam became divided between the communist north, supported by the USSR, and the south, supported by the United States and its allies.
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