The French and Indian War was fought 1754-1763 between the British and French, along with their associated colonists in North America. A number of Indian tribes were also involved, though most allied with the French. It was part of the Seven Years War, one of the first wars with engagements fought around the world.
It was an overwhelming British victory, with General Wolfe leading an army to victory over Montcalm at Quebec, and Montreal falling shortly after. Canada was handed over to the British, in return for some Caribbean islands that were returned to the French.
The war strained British finances and caused them to try to squeeze more money from their American colonies, contributing to the causes of the American Revolution a few years later.